Volume 14, 3402083 (12222)
Light is one type of electromagnetic wave. The electromagnetic wave vibrates vertically to the direction in which the light electromagnetic wave is traveling. The vibration directions of the wave vary. In our daily lives, almost all of the light that we see contains various vibration-direction waves in an equal amount. However, at times, there also is light in which components of the specified vibration direction are significantly contained. The vibration direction of the light emitted from atoms collided with electrons is influenced by the direction of the movement of electrons.
For that reason, when there is anisotropy in the movement of electrons, the light from the atoms too is polarized Figure 1. In the LHD, we investigate the degree of the polarization of light that is emitted from a hydrogen atom, and are advancing in our research that seeks to understand the anisotropy of the movement of electrons in the plasma.
Incorporating a special optical element that can pass the specific polarization component into a spectrometer, which is a device for measuring spectrum, we investigate in which direction oscillates the strongest polarization component. However, in LHD plasma the predicted amount of the polarization was small, and it was necessary to detect the difference in light strength at approximately one part per thousand approximately 0.
Even though we understood the principle, it has been difficult to achieve high precision measurements to date. At the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan NAOJ , researchers have developed high precision optical devices and are precisely measuring the polarized light emitted from solar plasma.
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At NIFS, we are, in particular, undertaking to establish a theoretical understanding of the polarization generation of light emitting atoms. The mechanisms by which LHD plasma and solar plasma generate polarized light differ, but the phenomena which humans see are similar. Further, regardless of whether LHD plasma or solar plasma, the plasma is composed primarily from hydrogen, and in the LHD it is comparatively easy to observe the emitted light from hydrogen atoms.
While advancing with collaboration research, it is thought that the high precision optical devices developed at the NAOJ can be applied to polarized light measurement. And diagnostics devices have been developed over the past several years, and now in the LHD, too, high precision polarized light diagnostics have been achieved Figure 2.
Plasma Polarization Spectroscopy
At present, we are developing calculation programs that are based upon theory, and from the magnitude of polarization that has been observed in the LHD we are moving forward with research that seeks to lead toward concrete conclusions regarding the anisotropy of electron movement.
Figure 1: A schematic diagram showing the principle by which an atom emits polarized light emission line in collisions with electrons. Shumlak, Uri University of Washington Citation: For pioneering investigations of sheared flow stabilization of magnetohydrodynamics modes in the Z-pinch. Silva, Carlos Georgia Institute of Technology Citation: For the groundbreaking development of ultrafast laser techniques for probing the transient photophysics of electro-optical and excitonic materials leading to novel and unique insights into charge-separation and carrier generation in organic photovoltaic systems.
Souza, Ivo S Ikerbasque Foundation and University of the Basque Country, Spain Citation: For developing the theory of geometric phases in electronic structure and its implementation in practical computational algorithms. Sudbo, Asle Norwegian University of Science and Technology Citation: For pioneering contributions to the theory of vortex matter in strongly fluctuating superconductors, superfluids, and multicomponent condensates.
Surrow, Bernd Temple University Citation: For developing the methodology and fundamental measurements for determining the spin structure and dynamics of the proton using W-boson and jet production in high-energy polarized proton collisions, and for developing a future electron-ion collider facility. Syage, Jack A ImmunogenX Citation: For the development of time-resolved methods for studying chemical dynamics in molecular clusters, state-specific, angle-velocity resolved direct imaging, and for pioneering the commercial development of atmospheric pressure photoionization for mainstream mass spectrometric chemical analysis.
Tchernyshyov, Oleg V Johns Hopkins University Citation: For seminal advances in magnetic solitons and the development of collective coordinate formalism of dynamics of magnetic solitons for ferromagnetic thin wires, skyrmion crystals and extended domain walls. Tkatchenko, Alexandre University of Luxembourg Citation: For the development of a novel framework for modeling and understanding van der Waals interactions in molecules and materials. Toney, Michael F SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Citation: For many contributions to the development of in situ synchrotron X-ray scattering and spectroscopy methods for studies of organic materials, photovoltaics, and electrochemical interfaces related to energy materials systems.
Valentine, Megan T. University of California, Santa Barbara Citation: For pioneering research in the development of microrheology and the applications of biomechanics at multiple length scales to diverse biological systems. Van de Water, Richard G Los Alamos National Laboratory Citation: For outstanding contributions to solar-neutrino and short-baseline accelerator-neutrino physics experiments that have shed new light on neutrino properties and have provided evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. Vavilov, Maxim G University of Wisconsin-Madison Citation: For important contributions to several areas of quantum information, including the development of novel qubit manipulation and readout methods for superconducting qubits, and new insight into decoherence processes in semiconducting qubits.
Vinokurov, Nikolay Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics Citation: For pioneering theoretical and experimental work in the field of free electron lasers and undulators for synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers. Vishveshwara, Smitha University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Citation: For pioneering theory of quantum dynamics in nonequilibrium systems and novel phenomena in cold Bose gases.
Vlahovska, Petia M. Northwestern University Citation: For pioneering work on problems in interfacial flows and soft matter, including the fluid-structure interaction in Stokes flow, the mechanics of biomembranes, and electrohydrodynamics. Vlassopoulos, Dimitris FORTH and University of Crete Citation: For seminal contributions to understanding the rheology of complex polymeric architectures and recognizing the need for carefully controlled polymers in these contexts. Vogler, Tracy John Sandia National Laboratories Citation: For landmark contributions to the basic understanding of shock propagation in metals, ceramics, and granular materials, for sustained service to the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, and for leadership in the science community.
Vogt, Bryan The Pennsylvania State University Citation: For insightful contributions to the understanding of polymer thin films and process-structure relationships of self-assembled polymers. Volovich, Anastasia Brown University Citation: For introducing original perspectives on quantum field theory calculations and uncovering deep mathematical structures in supersymmetric gauge theories, leading to novel and powerful methods of scattering amplitudes evaluation.
Waters, Sarah L Oxford University Citation: For exposing the intricate fluid mechanics of biomedical systems and impactfully analyzing them with elegant mathematics. Nominated by: American Physical Society.
Weiner, Neal New York University Citation: For contributions to new models of dark matter and the understanding of their implications for dark forces and multi-state dark sectors, and for connecting new models to dark matter detection strategies. Wenhui, Duan Tsinghua University Citation: For discoveries of novel physical phenomena in two-dimensional electronics and advanced functional materials using computational and theoretical approaches, and for the first-principles prediction of new quantum materials.
White, Anne Elisabeth Massachusetts Institute of Technology Citation: For outstanding contributions and leadership in understanding turbulent electron heat transport in magnetically confined fusion plasmas via diagnostic development, novel experimentation, and validation of nonlinear gyrokinetic codes. White, Marion M Argonne National Laboratory Citation: For tireless efforts to increase the participation of women and minorities in physics, especially through one-on-one mentoring and educating minorities in elementary school through college about opportunities in the field.
Wilke, Claus University of Texas at Austin Citation: For discovering that biophysical constraints are a primary driver of protein sequence evolution. Williams, David A University of California, Santa Cruz Citation: For contributions to the study of gamma rays from extragalactic sources such as gamma-ray bursts and blazars, for using gamma-ray data to test cosmological models of the extragalactic background light, and for leadership in the development of past, present, and future ground-based gamma-ray telescopes.
Wong, Chee Wei University of California, Los Angeles Citation: For contributions in mesoscopic optical physics, including photonic crystals and laser frequency microcombs. Xia, Jing University of California, Irvine Citation: For developing novel optical probes of unconventional superconductors and magnetic materials, and for transport studies of topological phases.
Xing, Huili Grace Cornell University Citation: For pioneering contributions in polar wide-bandgap semiconductors, 2D crystal semiconductors, and layered crystals. Xu, Hongqi Peking University Citation: For outstanding contributions to nanophysics and quantum transport in semiconductor systems. Xu, Ting University of California, Berkeley Citation: For the design and realization of hybrid polymers that open new and efficient paths to functional nanocomposites by elucidating the physics that control the rate and perfection of self-assembly.
Zhang, Jing Shanxi University Citation: For contributions to the fields of continuous-variable quantum information and quantum gases, especially for his pioneering experiments to realize spin-orbit coupling in degenerate Fermi gases. Zhang, Xin Boston University Citation: For research and education using microelectromechanical systems and metamaterials to address a wide range of important problems in areas ranging from energy to healthcare to homeland security.
Plasma polarization spectroscopy
Zhou, Mingfei Fudan University Citation: For outstanding contributions to the development and application of infrared spectroscopic techniques for the elucidation of the structure, chemical bonding, and reactivity of transient new molecules and clusters. Zhou, Ye Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Citation: For seminal contributions to understanding the evolution of turbulent interfaces from the weakly nonlinear to fully turbulent regimes relevant to the micro-scales of laser experiments, and the inertial confinement fusion to the mega-scales of supernova explosions, space physics, and astrophysics.
Zou, Xiaoqin University of Missouri Citation: For outstanding contributions to developing novel physics-based algorithms for modeling protein interactions with applications to structure-based drug design. Nominated by: Forum on Education Ahuja, Rajeev Uppsala University Citation: For seminal contributions to the design and understanding of energy storage materials and computational studies of condensed matter under high pressure.
Nominated by: Forum on Industrial and Applied Physics Analytis, James G University of California, Berkeley Citation: For elucidating the fundamental properties of topological materials, quantum spin liquids, and strange metals. Nominated by: Division of Condensed Matter Physics Bacca, Sonia Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz Citation: For first-principles calculations of the electromagnetic response of nuclei, leading to insights into the microscopic origin of the giant dipole resonance, nuclear polarizability corrections in muonic atoms, and the role of three-nucleon forces in electromagnetic reactions.
Nominated by: Topical Group on Few-Body Systems Balasubramanian, Vijay University of Pennsylvania Citation: For fundamental contributions clarifying the black hole information puzzle and black hole thermodynamics through work on the duality of quantum gravity and quantum field theory, and on black hole microscopics in theories of quantum gravity. Nominated by: Division of Particles and Fields Bao, Jiming University of Houston Citation: For the discovery of photoacoustic laser streaming, for seminal contributions to the understanding of basic electronic and optical properties of nanostructured materials, and the development of new nanomaterials for applications in solar energy conversions and optoelectronic devices.
Nominated by: Division of Materials Physics Bazin, Daniel Michigan State University Citation: For groundbreaking work developing nuclear reaction mechanisms for the study of rare isotopes, and for the conception and application of innovative technology to enable novel experiments. Nominated by: Division of Laser Science Bertoldi, Katia Harvard University Citation: For blending photonics, nonlinear mechanics, origami, and robotics through theory and experiment.
Nominated by: Topical Group on Soft Matter Bhattacharya, Anand Argonne National Laboratory Citation: For elucidating the magnetic and transport properties of novel oxide heterostructures and for the discovery of the spin Seebeck effect in paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic insulators. Nominated by: Division of Materials Physics Biegert, Jens ICFO - The Institute of Photonic Sciences Citation: For the development of intense few-cycle mid-infrared sources for the generation of water-window high-order harmonics, and their use in fundamental space-time imaging of the dynamics of molecular structure.
Nominated by: Topical Group on Hadronic Physics Bose, Tulika University of Wisconsin-Madison Citation: For leadership coordinating the CMS physics program and trigger system, and for contributions to the development of high level triggers and searches for heavy vector bosons and vector-like quarks.
Nominated by: Forum on Industrial and Applied Physics Bruder, Christoph University of Basel Citation: For quantum theory of many-body coherent phenomena in mesoscopic electron systems, cold atoms, and nanomechanical systems. Nominated by: Topical Group on Soft Matter Budil, Kimberly Susan Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Citation: For extraordinary leadership in developing national security partnerships between laboratories, academia, and governments, and for promoting diversity in science.
Nominated by: Forum on Physics and Society Buttery, Richard J General Atomics Citation: For pioneering contributions to the understanding of magnetohydrodynamics stability in tokamak plasmas, including the physics of tearing modes and magnetic field errors, and for outstanding scientific leadership of national and international fusion research.
http://maisonducalvet.com/huneja-pagina-conocer-gente.php Nominated by: Division of Plasma Physics Castillo, Luciano Purdue University Citation: For demonstrating the importance of the initial conditions of scaling arguments in turbulent boundary layers, and for demonstrating the importance of turbulence in wind energy, and for mentoring and creating new opportunities for under-represented minorities in fluid dynamics. Nominated by: Division of Polymer Physics Cheben, Pavel National Research Council of Canada Citation: For field-opening contributions to subwavelength integrated photonics, and the experimental and theoretical investigations of metamaterial nanostructures in optical waveguides, including metamaterial Bloch waveguides and on-chip metasurfaces in the telecom and mid-infrared frequencies.
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