Her research focus includes cancer tissue engineering and environmental cancer cell stress response. Permissions Request permission to reuse content from this site. Georgiadis, and Efstratios N. Undetected location. NO YES. Modelling Optimization and Control of Biomedical Systems. Selected type: Hardcover. Added to Your Shopping Cart.
View on Wiley Online Library. This is a dummy description. Introduces readers to the Modelling, Control and Optimization of Biomedical Systems MOBILE project Presents in detail the theoretical background, computational tools, and methods that are used in all the different biomedical systems Teaches the theory for multi-parametric mixed-integer programming and explicit optimal control of volatile anaesthesia Provides an overview of the framework for modelling, optimization, and control of biomedical systems This book will appeal to students, researchers, and scientists working on the modelling, control, and optimization of biomedical systems and to those involved in cancer treatment, anaesthsia, and drug delivery systems.
About the Author Efstratios N. Pistikopoulos 1. Pistikopoulos 2. Although enormous progress has been made in the understanding of the relationship between T. All treatments available for the disease are a result of studies that essentially used animal models. Leishmania is another protozoan responsible for a re-emergent disease in Brazil and in other regions of the world.
Leishmaniasis consists of a complex framework of clinical signs. Leishmania is also transmitted by an insect bite in this case the vectors are sandflies belonging to the Psychodidae family. Many mammal species can harbor the parasite. Sylvatic mammals constitute reservoirs for the disease, complicating the epidemiological control. Domestic animals, like horses, cats and mainly dogs are infected and contribute to the transmission to humans. To survive and replicate in this defense cell, the parasite evades the humoral immune response against Leishmania produced by the host, by residing within the phagocytosomes of the macrophages.
One of the strategies used to fight against invaders is the activation of oxidative burst, induced with the phagocytosis of these organisms Cunningham Nitric oxide synthase 2 NOS2 is also a very important enzyme in macrophage response, and when activated produces citrulline and nitric oxide NO from the oxidation of L-arginine: NO is a highly reactive, effector molecule which can combat invasive microorganisms Qadoumi et al.
Thus, a good animal model to be used in Leishmania studies must fulfill all these features. In respect to NO production, the amino acid arginine was shown to be a key molecule in the success or failure of the parasite in establishing the infection. In addition to being a substrate of NOS2, arginine can also be used by arginase I to produce urea and ornithine, the last being precursor of the polyamines involved in the replication of the parasite.
It is interesting to note that in a Th2 response, arginase I is also activated. Leishmania itself presents arginase activity, and in a construction of a parasite with the arginase knocked out, it was possible to show that Leishmania arginase is related to parasite replication and survival da Silva et al.
As already mentioned in this review, it is important that the appropriate model is used to provide the required conditions to answer a specific scientific question. The best animal model for melatonin studies is the rat model, but rats are refractory to Leishmania infection. The best model for Leishmania study is the mice model, but mice are too small for sample collection to analyze melatonin effects. The results of this research showed that melatonin impairs Leishmania infection, pointing to potential new treatments, as well as indicating a possible explanation of why sylvatic mammals do not develop disease signs, because, being nocturnal animals, they are infected during the night when they present high levels of melatonin in the bloodstream.
Based on the above examples, one can understand how difficult it is to conduct animal research. It is important to note that beyond adequate technical knowledge, animal experimentation requires that ethical concerns speak louder than scientific interests. Each researcher must have a complete understanding of the animal model being used, and of the biology and behavior of that species.
Researchers must also be aware of the importance of the work being conducted, and consider all the premises that justify each specific project based on a solid scientific background see Andersen and Tufik , Andersen and Helfenstein Animal experimentation has incited a great deal of debate, with a lot of the discussion focusing on ethical considerations. In it introduced the Cruelty to Animals Act, which amended the previous Act, and included regulation of animal experimentation. The act highlighted three main points: 1. Each R stands for a principle for the ethical use of animals in experiments: R eduction is the application of methods that allow a reduced number of animals to be used in a protocol.
This can be achieved by detailed planning of the experiments, guaranteeing that results will have statistical significance. The use of animals presenting the same or a similar genetic background also ensures a low fluctuation of the data, thereby reducing the number of animals which need to be used in a study. Nowadays, access to several available data-bases meta-analysis sometimes allows the number of animals used to be reduced or in some cases allows their use to be avoided completely. R efinement consists in the application of methods that avoid animal suffering, such as: the use of anesthesia during a procedure and analgesic regimens for pain relief during recovery; the use of non-invasive techniques; housing conditions that provide a comfortable and safe environment and training the animal to cooperate with procedures.
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R eplacement is the major goal for the use of animals in science. It consists of the substitution of animals with other models, such as microorganisms or other invertebrates, cell cultures, organs or even cellular fractions. The ideal replacement would be a protocol conducted with no use of animals. The ARRIVE guidelines that has been translated in several languages have a checklist of 20 items relating information, such as the number and specific characteristics of animals used e.
The goals are to improve the design, analysis and reporting of research using animals maximizing information published and minimizing unnecessary studies, as pointed out by Kilkenny et al. Collectively, 3Rs, ARRIVE guidelines and additional initiatives are marked efforts to accomplish ethical background in biomedical research. Due to the efforts of the physician and researcher Sergio Arouca, in , after lengthy discussion in the Brazilian National Congress, Brazil emerged into a new era of animal research regulation with the promulgation of Law n o. CEUAs have the role of encouraging ethical thinking and appreciation for the concept of animal welfare, as well as to promote the development of alternative measures to the use of animals in research or practical classes.
According to the law, all projects involving laboratory animals must be submitted and reviewed by an institutional CEUA, which has the authority to halt any teaching or research practice that does not comply with the legislation. The CEUAs are formally responsible for the care and use of research and teaching-purpose animals within the institution, and must ensure that facility standards and the care of animals are in accordance with CONCEA resolutions.
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After the creation of the Law n o. We are certainly in need of programs and training courses to better prepare our students, technicians and researchers to work with laboratory animals. The teaching of Laboratory Animal Science is recent in our academic scenario, but there is a range of pedagogic materials available in different spheres, being provided by the government or available in the international literature.go
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Brazil has reached a position of importance in the scientific community through scientific publications, and it is important that Brazil works to international norms in terms of animal experimentation so that it can continue to make major contributions to the global scientific community. Thus, we expect that not only will universities and research centers throughout the country work to the standards outlined in the current legislation, but also that further initiatives will be introduced in future, including the consolidation of research from different centers across the country.
We have now established an ethical standard and specific rules for animal protection and the promotion of animal well-being in Brazil. The specific advantages of the use of alternative non-animal methods are: 1. Models may be used more than once, by several people, independently of time and place of study; 2.
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The use of alternative models allows students to self-evaluate until they reach the aimed learning objectives; 3. Alternative methods which use modern video and computer techniques, such as 3D technology, can allow the demonstration of physiological phenomena that are impossible to visualize in animal models e.
The cost of implementation of alternative methods may initially be high, but in a near future may reduce costs in terms of the acquisition, transport and maintenance of animals Van der Valk et al. From the teaching point of view, there is a marked emphasis from CONCEA on the replacement of animals by alternative methods in classes. The symposium resulted in wider knowledge dissemination and a marked increase in the discussion of pedagogical methods for practical teaching in the areas of biology, biomedicine, health and veterinary, among others.
Alternative methods have also become an exceptional ally in the reduction of the unnecessary use of animals in practical classes. In addition to being introduced to a major control and research quality based on ethical legislations, students frequently return motivated from international experiences during which they experienced appropriate learning in accordance with educational and pedagogical propositions without the use of animals.
Thus, students who study abroad will become familiar with non-animal methods before they come back to Brazil and that might encourage Brazilian institutions to start looking for alternative methods. From the research point of view, in addition to the improvements being made in the development of better animal models, a great deal of effort is being dedicated to finding alternative approaches to the use of animals: Plants, such as Arabdopis taliana , can be used as models organisms in biological research. In addition, cell cultures, in vitro approaches, the use of stem cells for differentiation and regeneration, as well as advances in the use of tools such as intravital microscopy, magnetic resonance imaging MRI or positron emission tomography PET Lieschke and Currie scans and progress in informatics such as increased use of meta-analysis Greek and Menache have all resulted in a substantial reduction of the number of animals used in research.
Three bodies have been established in Brazil to oversee the processes of validation of alternative methods. They are:. Since , it has already recognized 24 scientifically validated and internationally accepted test methods e.
Modelling Optimization and Control of Biomedical Systems
The participation of members of Animal Protection Societies in CONCEA reinforces the debate on the use of animals for research, the consideration of alternative methods and the demands of our modern society. This article aims to describe and contextualize animal models and the evolution of Laboratory Animal Science. The relevance of animals for the development of Veterinary and human health is undeniable. According to rules and laws imposed by the government, research projects must be within the parameters previously established for teaching or research purposes.
The use of animals in experiments must be primarily anchored in ethical and integrity-based assumptions, and most certainly must justify the use of animal. Most citizens, regardless of their background, are concerned with the well-being of animals, while wishing to see the continued development of drugs for the treatment of disease and the maintenance of quality of life. This text provides a useful tool to demonstrate to the academic community and the wider public the progress which has been made nationally in the search for excellence in the use of animals in research and teaching activities, and the benefits that animal research provides to human beings.
Those who pursue academic goals using animal research must do so based on ethical principles and with dedication under the parameters that regulate laboratory practices. Each researcher must make every effort to employ animals in academic activities in the most ethical and responsible way, while contributing to knowledge dissemination and not forgetting the principles of the legislation. As authors and scientists, we invite Society to be part of a wider forum, promoting reflection on, and integrity in the use of animals in science.
We call on the academic community to follow the ethical and legal rules approved by the entire nation: Together, we can make scientific advances that will improve the quality of life of all citizens, while at the same time reducing the number of animals used in research and providing better treatment and conditions for the laboratory animals that continue to be used.
Protective efficacy of multiple vaccine platforms against Zika virus challenge in rhesus monkeys. Science Immunol Lett Animal models as ethical tools in biomedical research. Nitric oxide and the immune response. Nat Immunol 2: A simple technique for infection of mosquitoes with viruses; transmission of Zika virus.
Impaired quality of life after chikungunya virus infection: a 2-year follow-up study. Rheumatology Oxford The Brazilian Zika virus strain causes birth defects in experimental models. Nature Parasitic adaptive mechanisms in infection by leishmania. Exp Mol Pathol Virology Proteins and Proteomics of Leishmania and Trypanosoma. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, p. Clinical features and neuroimaging CT and MRI findings in presumed Zika virus related congenital infection and microcephaly: retrospective case series study.
BMJ i Zika virus. Isolations and serological specificity.
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