Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language


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Reasons Internalism and the Function of Normative Reasons

When we say something is good we are saying something of this form. Where p is some proposition for good , he argues, is fundamentally expressive of a propositional operator , and e is some end salient in the context. Such salience is a slippery thing. Sometimes Drinking a lot of gin is good might be relative to the end of having fun. But we can still ask Drinking a lot of gin may be fun, but is it good? So we have a form of reductive naturalism that offers to defuse the open question argument.

Or at least we do when we complete the reduction in the way F proposes. Along the way in discussing good , F has a swipe at the Aristotelian moral functionalist. A sentence saying X is a good K , where K is some functional kind, has both a functional reading, where the end served by the state of affairs denoted by p in which X features as a K is that end e K specified by the function of K; and a nonfunctional reading, where X is something that happens to be a K featuring in some state of affairs good for some contextually salient e.

F now claims we can distinguish these readings in the following way. On a nonfunctional reading, X being a good or bad K entails X being a K. On a functional reading, it does not.

Indo-Aryan languages

This test is credited to Shyam Nair. To be a good or bad person, he then proposes, entails being a person. Likewise, to be a good or bad human being entails being a good human being. Goodbye moral functionalism. It would be good to see this very quick argument slowed down a bit. As it stands, I am not quite clear what the rules would be for seeking counterexamples. An ice-axe is not a weapon, but it may be a good weapon. Only, if it is a good weapon, it surely is a weapon. Do we take weapon here to mean something made for a martial purpose or something serviceable to one?

On the latter understanding, weapon surely still counts as a functional kind, but it is hard here to see how a good weapon could fail to be a weapon. Maybe things get clearer if we accentuate the negative. A postage stamp is a really bad weapon. Indeed, it is partly for that reason not a weapon at all.

F tackles this in two steps. Main article: Dardic languages. Main article: Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Main article: Hindi languages.

They are aikawartanna Skt ekavartana 'one turn of the course', terawartanna Skt tre-vartana 'three turns of the course', sattawartanna Skt sapta-vartana 'seven turns of the course', nawartana with haplology for nawawartana Skt nava-vartana 'nine turns of the course'. The forms of numerals in these words are clearly Indo-Aryan.

The form aika- is especially confirmatory.

The Gift Of Tongues: A Known Language Or A Prayer Language?

The form satta for Skt sapta- is a clearly Middle Indo-Aryan form. The following linguistic features reveal that the language belongs to an early Middle Indo-Aryan stage or to a transitional stage between Old Indo-Aryan and Middle Indo-Aryan. This characteristic places the language of these documents earlier than 1st MIA, for example, rukma urukmannu, rtanma artamna. Thus, a linguistic study of the borrowed Indo-Aryan forms in the Anatolian records shows that they are definitely Indo-Aryan and not Iranian nor Indo- Iranian. Further, this language is comparable to the language of the Indus seals as deciphered by S.

This language is the base for Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, which was wrongly named Hybrid because of a misconception that it was a mixed language. On the basis of the borrowed words in Anatolian records and the language of the Indus seals as deciphered by S. Bryant, Edwin October Journal of the American Oriental Society. Glottolog 3.

Stephen Finlay

Retrieved 8 July International Learnings Systems. Most Aryan languages of India and Pakistan belong to the Indo-Aryan family, and are descended from Sanskrit through the intermediate stage of Prakrit. The Indo-Aryan languages are by far the most important numerically and the territory occupied by them extends over the whole of northern and central India and reaches as far south as Goa. American Philosophical Society. Urdu L1: Retrieved 30 August Patton Oxford University Press. Nunley; Severin M. Roberts; George W.

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Wubrick; Daniel L. Hindustani is the basis for both languages South Asian Voice. Archived from the original on 11 November Retrieved 26 February University of California, Davis. Archived from the original on 3 January Retrieved 3 January A grammar of Domari.

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Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 25 March SIL International. Retrieved 15 September Cardona, George ; Jain, Dhanesh, eds. Madhav Deshpande Sociolinguistic attitudes in India: An historical reconstruction. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers. Chakrabarti, Byomkes A comparative study of Santali and Bengali. Calcutta: K.

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Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Ernst Kausen, Historical phonology of old Indo-Aryan consonants.


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Misra, Satya Swarup. Fresh light on Indo-European classification and chronology. Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan. Sen, Sukumar. Syntactic studies of Indo-Aryan languages. Vacek, Jaroslav. The sibilants in Old Indo-Aryan: A contribution to the history of a linguistic area.


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Prague: Charles University. Old and Middle Indo-Aryan languages. Mitanni-Aryan Vedic Sanskrit. Modern Indo-Aryan languages. Doteli Jumli Nepali Palpa. Garhwali Kumaoni. Dogri Kangri Mandeali.

Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language
Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language
Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language
Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language
Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language
Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language
Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language

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